KILIMO CHA MUHOGO

Zao la muhogo ni muhimu sana kwa Tanzania zaidi kwa wakulima wadogo wenye kipato cha chini. Wakulima wengi huchanganya zao la muhogo na mazao mengine kama vile kunde, mbaazi, njugumawe, n.k. Umuhimu wa zao hili ni kutupatia cahakula na wakati mwingine kwa biashara. Kwa kanda ya kusini muhogo ni chakula kikuu ambacho kinachukua asilimia 75 ya chakula kwa maeneo yote ya mikoa ya pwani

Muhogo hustawi vizuri katika maeneo yaliyopo kwenye maeneo ya mita 0 – 1500 kutoka usawa wa bahari. Vile vile muhogo hustawi vizuri kwenye maeneo yanayopata mvua ya wastani wa mm 750 – mm1200 kwa mwaka. Muhogo hustawi vizuri kwenye ardhi ya kichanga. Vili vile zao la muhogo ni maarufu sana kwa uvumilivu wa hali ya ukame.

TEKNOLOJIA ZILIZOPO
Mbegu bora za muhogo
Mpaka sasa hivi kuna aina mbili za mbegu bora ambazo zimathibitishwa kwa wakulima. Mbegu hizi huvumilia magonjwa, (batobato na matekenya), pia huzaa sana ukilinganisha na mbegu za kienyeji.

Naliendele
Huzaa tani 19 kwa hekta moja, na inaweza kuvunwa kuanzia miezi 9 toka ipandwe.

Kiroba
Huzaa tani 25 – 30 kwa hekta moja, na inaweza kuvunwa kuanzia miezi 9 toka ipandwe.

Mbinu bora za kilimo cha muhogo

Uandaaji wa shamba

Shamba liandaliwe kabla ya msimu wa kuanza. Uandaaji wa shamba bora hufuata hatua zifuatazo:
– Kufyeka shamba
– Kung’oa na kuchoma visiki
– Kulima na kutengeneza matuta

Uchaguzi wa mbegu bora za kupanda
Mbegu zinatakiwa zisiwe na magojwa yeyote, pia chagua mashina ambayo yamekomaa vizuri.

Upanadaji
Kuna njia tatu za upandaji wa muhogo:
– Kulaza ardhini (Horizontal)
– Kusimamisha wima (Vertcal)
– Kuinamisha ( Inclined/Slunted)

Urefu wa kipande cha shina cha kupanda:
Inashauriwa urefu uwe sm 30; lakini urefu wa kipande cha kupanda unategemea sana idadi ya macho yaliyopo kwenye hicho kipande, inashauriwa kipande kiwe na macho (4 – 6).

Nafasi ya kupanda:
Kwa upandaji wa shamba muhogo tupu, shina hadi shina ni mita 1 na mstari hadi mstari ni mita 1.Kwa shamba la mchanganyiko na mazao mengine, inategemeana na zao linalochanganywa; mstari hadi mstari ni mita 2 – mita 4 na shina hadi shina ni mita 1.

Palizi:
– Palizi ya kwanza ifanyike mapema (mwezi 1) baada ya kupanda ili kuepukana na magugu yanayochipua haraka baada ya mvua kunyesha. Ndani ya miezi mine ya mwanzo mihogo haitakiwi kuwa na magugu ili kuepuka ushindni wa mahitaji muhimu (mwanga, mbolea, maji, n.k) kati ya muhugo na magugu.
– Palizi hufanyika kwa kutumi jebe la mkono au dawa ya kuuwa magugu.
– Wakati mwingine udhibiti wa magugu kufanyika kwa kutumia majani kwa kutandazwa juu ya udongo.
– Plaizi hufanyika mara 2 – 3 hadi muhugo kukomaa.

Uvunaji:
Mihogo inaweza kuanza kuvunwa baada ya miezi 9 – 12 tangu kupandwa. Inashauriwa kuvuna katika katika kipindi cha jua; kwani wakati wa mvua kiwango cha wanga kwenye muhogo hupungua.

Usindikaji bora
Usindikaji bora wa muhogo unafanyika kwa sababu kuu mbili:
– Kurahisisha/kuharakisha ukaushaji
– Kuondoa sumu (cyanide) ilyoko kwenye baadhi ya aina za mihogo
– Kuongeza ubora wa unga utokanao muhogo wenyewe.

Njia bora za usindikaji
– Kwa kutumia mashine aina ya Grater
Hii hutoa chembechembe laini za muhogo, ambazo baadae hukamuliwa kwa kutumia kifaa kingine kiitwacho “presser” ili kuondo sumu iliyoko kwenye muhogo. Mashine hii hutumika hususani kwa muhogo mchungu.
– Kwa kutumia mashine aina ya chipper
– Mashine hii hutoa vipande vidogo vidogo (chips). Mashine hii hutumika hasa hasa kwa ajili ya mihogo mitamu/baridi.

Matumizi ya Muhogo
– Muhogo unaweza kupikwa wenyewe kama chakula au kutengeneza unga
– Unga wa muhogo unaweza kutengeneza vitu vyotekama vinavyotengenezwa na unga wa ngano kama vile biskuti, chapatti, maandazi, chichili, keki n.k.
– Pia muhogo huweza kutumika viwandani kutengeneza bidhaa nyingine kama vile wanga.

MAGONJWA NA WADUDU WAHARIBIFU
Magonjwa
Kuna magonjwa mawili ambayo ni muhimu sana na yanapunguza uzalishaji wa zao la muhogo.

a) Ugonjwa wa Matekenya au Ugonjwa wa michirizi ya kahawia
katika muhogo
Ugonjwa huu ni maarufu kwenye sehemu zenye miinuko iliyo na urefu chini ya mita 300 na unapatikana kidogo sana kwenye miinuko ya mita 500 na kuendelea ambako uenezaji wake wa kawaida hautokei kabisa.

Visababishi:
Matokeo ya uchunguzi wa awali unaonyesha kwamba ugonjwa huu ulienezwa na mdudu mweuupe au inzi mweupe (whitefly) mwenye mabawa madogo.

Dalili za Ugonjwa
Sehemui zote za muhogo zinaweza kuonyesha dalili za uambukizo wa ugonjwa huu lakini ni vipengele gani vya ugonjwa na ni kwa kiwango gani hutegemea hali ya mzingira, hatua ya kukua kwa mmea kwa kulinganisha.

– Kwenye majani
Dalili ya kwanza: Chlorosis rangi ya njani hutokea kwanza pembezoni mwa vena ndogo baadae huathtiri vena ndogo zaidi na inaweza kuwa doa (chlorosis) la rangi ya njano.
Dalili ya pili: Rangi ya njano ambayo haihusishwi vizuri na vena isipokuwa katika mbaka ya mviringo kati ya vena kuu kwenye hatua za mwisho za ugonjwa sehemu kubwa ya lamin inaweza isiathirike, majni yenye ugonjwa hubaki yameshikilia kwenye mmea kwa muda wa wiki kadhaa.

– Kwenye shina
Huonekana kwenye tisu ya shina changa la kijani, jeraha la zambarau au kahawia linweza kuoneakan nje na kuingia ndani hadi kwenye gamba baaada ya kubandua gome la nje. Pia jeraha la nekrotiki kwenye kovu la shina hutokea baada ya majni kudondoka kutokana na umri wa mmea. Tawi/shina hufa kuanzia kwenye nch kuelekea chini na kusababisha kufa kwa mmea wote.

– Kwenye mizizi
Kwa kawaida hutokea baada ya dalili za majani na wakati wa kipindi kati ya uambukizo na kufa, amabpo kifo cha mizizi hutokea kuanzia miezi 5 toka kupandwa. Dalili za mizizi zinabadilika nje ya mizizi na zinaweza kuwa kama kizuizimwanga au shimo au kufa kwenye gome.

Tishu inayo zunguka mshins ina doa la rangi ya kahawia au nyeusi. Wakati mwingine mizizi huonekana kuwa yenye afya kwa nje bila kuwa na matatizo yaliyowazi au bila kupungua ukubwa, lakini ikikatwa huonekana kufainakufa au rangi ya njano.

Uambukizaji na ueneaji
Ugonjwa wa CBSD unaambukizwa kwa njia ya vipandikizi vinavyotokea kwenye mimea iliyoathiriwa vinavyosababisha mmea kuonesha kwenye majani dalili za ugonjwa.
Kwa kuwa muhogo kwa kawaida huzalishwa kwa njia ya vipandikizi ugonjwa huu huingizwa kwenye sehemu mpya zilizopandwa kwa kutumia vipandikizi vilivyoambukizwa.
Kwa aina zinazovumilia sana kwenye hali za mabondeni, dalili mbaya sana hutokea wakati ugonjwa ukigundulika katika hatua za mwanzo.

Uchunguzi umeonesha kwamba Bemisia afer ni mdudu/kisababishi ambacho ndicho kinachohusiana na maendeleo ya hivi karibuni kuhusu uhamishaji wa visababishi kama “ipomovirus”. Mara nyingine inaonesha nzi weupe (White flies) na kutokana na hali hiyo bado uchunguzi unaendelea zaidi.

Udhibiti/Kuzuia
Njia ya msingi ya kuzuia/kudhibiti ugonjwa wa CBSD ni kuchagua mbegu kutoka kwenye mimea isiyo na dalili ya ugonjwa.

Ubora wa mashina unahitaji kutunzwa kwa kuendelea kuchagua na kuangamiza ile iliyoambukizwa ambayo inaonekana wakati wa kuchipua.

Hakikisha kuwa unapanda mbegu bora za mhogo ambazo zinastahimili uambukizo wa magonjwa.

Hakikisha kuwa wakati wa uvunaji uonapo hali ya kuoza kwa mizizi ya mhogo ichome moto ili kutokomeza ugonjwa huo.

Kuelewa dalili za ugonjwa wa CBSD kwa ajili ya kuchukua tahadhari ya kutokomeza ugonjwa huu.

Hakikisha kuwa unaendelea kutunza mbegu bora zinazoonekana kuvumilia magonjwa sana.

Hakikisha kuwa shamba la mhogo linakuwa safi kwa ajili ya kupunguza visababishi vya ugonjwa wa CBSD

b) Ugonjwa wa batobato au ukoma wa majani
Ni ugonjwa ambao ulienezwa kwamara ya kwanza hapa Tanzani mwaka 1894, na baadae uliripotiwa katika nchi nyingine nyingi za Afrika Mashriki, Afrika Magharibi na Afrika ya Kati na sasa unafahamika kuwa upo maeneo yote yanayolimwa muhogo Afrika.

Katika viwango vya kuwepo kwa ugonjwa wa CMD na katika uwingi wa hasara zinazopatikana kutokana na CMD ni kati ya 15% – 20%. Hii ni sawa na tani milioni 15 – 18 zikilinganishwa na makadirio ya shirika la kilimo na chakula duniani ya tani milioni 85 ya mwaka 1997.

Visababishi
Tangu ugonjwa wa CMD ulipoenezwa kwa mara ya kwanza, visababishi vilichukuliwa kuwa ni virusi kwa sababu ya kukosekana kisababishi kingine. Kwa hiyo kutokana na kuwa mtazamo huu unalingana na matokeo ya uchunguzi wa awali inaonesha kwamba ugonjwa huu huenezwa na nzi mweupe (white fly).

Pia uchunguzi wa mara kwa mara umesababisha utambuzi wa virusi vya aina mbalimbali na tofauti kama ifuatavyo:

• Ugonjwa wa batobato unaosababishwa na virusi vya Africa cassava mosaic virus

• Ugonjwa wa batobato unaosababishwa na virusi vya Afrika mashariki (East Africa cassava mosaic virus)

• Ugonjwa wa batobato unaosababishwa na virusi vya India (Indian cassava mosaic virus)

Dalili za ugonjwa wa batobato (Cassava Mosaic Disease-CMD)

Dalili hutokea kwenye jani lenye uwaraza wa michirizi ambazo huathiri

Sehemu zisizokunjamana za kutolea hewa na hufahamika katika hatua za

Awali za ukuaji wa jani.
Sehemu za kloritiki hushindwa kutanuka hadi mwisho, hivyo mvutano unajitokeza kutokana na ukuaji usiolingana na jani au majani madogo yaliyoharibika.

Majani yaliyoathirika sana hupungua ukubwa wa umbo, na hujikunja na kujitenga kwa sehemu zenye rangi ya njano na zenye rangi ya kawaida ya kijani.

Mmea hudumaa na majani machanga hupatwa na uvimbe.
Kloritiki ya jani inaweza kuwa ya rangi ya manjano nyepesi au rangi inayokaribia nyeupe yenye kijani kidogo au kupauka kuliko ilivyo kawaida.

Uambukizaji na uenezaji
Ukoma wa mhogo huambukizwa kwenye vipandikizi vya shina ambavyo kwa kawaida hutumika kuzalishia mmea.
Pia huenezwa na inzi mweupe (white fly) aitwae Bemisia tabaci G. Aina mbili za inzi au Mbu hao Bemisia (Preisner Hhosny na Aleorodius disperses R) pia huambukiza mihogo katika nchi za Afrika na India Usambazaji wa vipandikizi unaweza kusababisha kuenea kwa ugonjwa CDM katika Maeneo mapya.

UHIBITI NA KUZUIA
-Hatua ya msingi ya kuzuia ugonjwa wa CMD ni kwa kuchagua vipandikizi kutoka kwa Mmea ambao hauna uambukizo wowote.

-Ubora wa mashina unahitajika kwa kuendelea kuchagua na kuangamiza kwa kung’oa ile Mihogo iliyoambukizwa ambayo inaonekana wakati wa kuchipua

-Hakikisha kuwa wakati wa kuvuna mihogo kwa ile iliyoathirika na ugonjwa wa CMD inaangamizwa kwa kuchomwa moto.

-Hakikisha kuwa unatunza shamba na kuwa safi ili kupunguza wadudu waenezao CMD.

-Hakikisha una elimu ya kutosha juu ya dalili za ugonjwa wa CMD>

WADUDU NA WANYAMA WAHARIBIFU
– Cassava Mealy Bug (CMB)

Wadudu hawa hushambulia kwenye ncha za mashina/matawi kwenye majani machanga. Athari zake ni kwamba majani ynadumaa na kujikusanya pamoja, hivyo basi kupunguza ukuaji wa mmea kwa ujumla. Vile vile urefu kati ya pingili na pingili huwa fupi sana.

– Cassava Green Mites (CGM)

Wadudu hawa hushambulia majani mapya sehemu za chini. Madhara yake sio makubwa.

– White Scales
Hawa ni weupe na hujishika kwenye shina na kufyonza maji kutoka kwenye mti wa muhogo. Vili vile wadudu hawa madhara yake sio muhimu.

– Mchwa
Hawa hutafuna/hula mashina ya muhogo hasa wakati wa jua kali/kiangazi.
– Wanyama waharibifu
Hawa hushambulia muhogo ukiwa shambani kwa kuula, kama vile nguruwe, panya, wezi, n.k

Udhibiti/Kuzuia
Kwa upande wa wadudu wanweza kudhibitiwa kwa njia zifuatazo:

Kutumia dawa za kuulia wadudu

Kutumia wadudu marafiki wa wakulima

Kwa upande wa wanyama ni kuweka walinzi.

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