KILIMO BORA CHA MIPAPAI

MAHITAJI

Hali ya  hewa inayofaa kwa mipapai ni ya kitropik ambayo haina baridi kali na joto kiasi . Udongo usiotuamisha maji maji yakisimama kwa masaa 48 tu mpapai unaweza kufa, wenye ruruba ya kutosha kwa sababu mipapai haina mzizi mkuu haihiyaji udongo wenye kina kirefu, kipindi cha jua kali mpapai usiachwe zaidi ya wiki 8 bila kumwagiliwa maji kama hakuna mvua ingawa wakati wa mapapai kuiva kama kuna ukame basi hii huongeza ubora wa papai ikiwamo kutooza mapema sokoni

Mipapai ipandwe sehemu ambazo hazina upepo mwingi kwani huvunjika kirahisi, kama unashamba la mipapai itakubidi kupanda miti ya kukinga upepo kuzunguka shamba lako, miti kama miparachichi, migravilea, vibiriti (leucaena Spp) na miembe pia inafaa. Hakikisha miti ya kukinga upepo inakuwa mirefu kuzidi mipapai kwa mita 10 mpaka 20 juu zaidi

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Kuendelea kupanda mipapai kwenye shamba moja kunaweza kusababisha usugu wa magonjwa, nashauri baada ya miaka 3 – 5 ubadilishe zao hili angalau kwa msimu mmoja ili kuua mzunguko wa magonjwa

Mipapai inaweza kuchanganganywa na miembe na mimea jamii ya michungwa, pia mazao ya msimu kama mahindi, mtama, ufuta , alizeti  na  mboga mboga yanaweza kulimwa

Kwa kaida kwenye mipapai kuna mipapai dume, majike  na yenye jinsia zote (multiplesex/hermaphrodite) ambayo huwa na mapapai marefu zaidi, na pia kuna isiyoeleweka ambayo huwa na mapapai mafupi sana

MBEGU

Kusanya mbegu toka kwenye mapai makubwa na yaliyo komaa na kuiva, kausha mbegu vizuri kbla ya kupanda, kama utapata mbegu za  kununua ni vizuri zaidi, baada ya kukausha hakikisha unazipanda ndani ya wiki moja

KUOTESHA MBEGU

Kuna wanaopendelea kuotesha mbegu kwanza na kisha kuhamishia miche shambani, sehemu ya kuoteshea iandaliwe miezi miwili kabla, mbegu zioteshwe kwenye kina kati ya sentimeta 1 – 2 chini ya udongo wenye rutuba au pakiti za plastiki, kiwango bora cha joto ni sentigredi 21 – 27 na itachukua kati ya wiki 1 – 4 kwa mbegu kuota, kwenye kila pakiti weka mbegu 2 – 3. Panda mbegu zako kwenye kitalu kwa umbali wa sentimeta 3 toka shimo hadi shimo na sentimeta 15 kati ya mistari, hakikisha maji hayatuami kabisa, pia unaweza kupiga dawa ya copper oxychloride gramu moja katika lita moja ya maji ilikukinga miche yako na fangasi

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UOTESHAJI WA MOJA KWA MOJA

Kabla ya kupanda mbegu weka mchanganyiko wa majivu na mbolea ya kuku sehemu ya kupandia, mbolea husaidia ukuaji haraka na jivu husaidia kukinga mipapai na magonjwa. Panda mbegu 3 – 5 kila shimo maana miche mingine inaweza kufa kwa magonjwa, kuliwa na wadudu au ikaota dume

KUHAMISHA MICHE TOKA KWENYE KITALU

Miche ihamishiwe shambani ikiwa na urefu wa sentimeta 20 – 40, kama udongo unatuamisha maji panda kwenye matuta yenye urefu wa sentimeta 40 – 60 mashimo yawe na ukubwa wa sentimeta 45 upana na sentimeta 30 kina na shimo lichanganywe na udongo na samadi bila kuacha kisahani cha maji, umbali ni mita 3 kwa 3 kwani mipapai inahitaji jua la kutosha

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KUPUNGUZA MIPAPAI

Baada ya miezi 3 – 5 baada ya kupanda mipapai itatoa maua na hapo jinsia ya mipapai itajulikana na mingine itabidi ipunguzwe na hasa midume, mipapai yenye jinsi zote inatakiwa isizidi asilimia 10 – 20 na midume ibaki mmoja katika kila mijike 25, mimea yenye magonjwa pia inabidi ing’olewe

RUTUBA YA UDONGO

Weka kiasi chakilo 2 – 5 za samadi kwenye kila mpapai kwa mwaka ili kuongeza ukuaji na uzazi, mabaki ya mimea yanaweza pia kuwekwa kama matandazo na h ii ni muhimu zaidi kipindi cha kiangazi ili kuzuia unyevu usipotee.

MAGUGU

Mipapai inapopandwa tu inaweza kuwekewa matandazo kuizunguka ili kuzuia uoataji wa magugu, magugu yang’olewe yakiwa machanga na epuka kuchimbua chini sana maana mizizi ya mipapai huwa juu juu, njia nzuri ni kuweka matandazo kwenye shamba lote ili kuzuia outaji wa magugu

UANGALIZI

  • Mipapai iangaliwe dhidi ya magonjwa, ing’olewe na kuchomwa au kufukiwa chini ikiwa itabainika kuwa na maonjwa, piga dawa dhidi ya magonjwa ya fangasi na virusi mara yanapoibuka ili kuongeza uzaaji nakipato chako
  • Ondoa matawi yote yatakayojitokeza pembeni ya mpapai wako, na hii ifanyike mapema kabla ya tawi kuwa kubwa.
  • Ondoa mapapi yote ambayo yatakuwa hayakuchavuliwa vizuri na acha yale yenye afya tu
  • Weka miti ya kuegemea kama mpapai utazaa matunda mengi na hasa wakati wa upepo mwingi ili kuzuia mipapai isivunjike
  • Mipapai ikitunzwa inaweza kuishi mika mingi, ila kwa ajili ya mazao bora ondoa mipapai na upande mingine baada ya kila miaka mitatu (3) kwani mpapai unapo kuwa mkubwa basi rutuba yote huishia kwenye mti wenyewe

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