UTENGENEZAJI WA SABUNI

SOMO LA KWANZA : UTENGENEZAJI WA SABUNI ZA AINA ZOTE.

 MASOMO  YATAKAYO  FUNDISHWA  HAPA  NI :

  1. Utengenezaji  Wa Sabuni  isiyo na garama.
  2. Wa Sabuni ya urembo.
  3. Sabuni ya asali na cream.
  4. Utengenezaji   Wa  Sabuni ya manukato.
  5. Utengenezaji   Wa  Sabuni ngumu.
  6. Sabuni ya unga
  7. Sabuni ya kugandisha.
  8. Utengenezaji    Wa  Sabuni za dawa.
  9. Sabuni za rangi.
  10. Wa Cream ya kunyolea.
  11. Sabuni iliyotengenezwa na mafuta mengine.

VIFAA VYA UTENGENEZAJI SABUNI.

*Sufuria.

*Bakuli kubwa la mfinyanzi au plastiki.

*Mafuta

*Maji.

*Sodium hydroxide{NaOH}

*Ubao mdogo/mwiko.

*Chombo chenye ukubwa cha plastiki.

*Kifyatulio.

*Kisu.

*Vikombe 2 vya plasitiki.

* Makopo  2  ya plasiki au kaure.

Vipimo vinavyo tajwa hapa ni chombo chochote cha plastic ( kama kikombe,kopo n.k.}

Vipimo vyote ni vya ujazo na mara zote vikae wima.

TAHADHARI-   

Sodium hydroxide {NaOH} ni hatari.

Lazima iwekwe mbali na mahali wanakofikia watoto.

*Kama  mtoto atameza sodium hydroxide ni lazima apewe maziwa mengi au kikombe 1 cha mchanganyiko wa juisi ya   limau/siki na vikombe 20 vya maji.

 

*Sodium hydroxide hushambulia ngozi, kuwa mwangalifu  kila mara unapotengeneza sabuni, nawa mikono vizuri, hali ya  unyevu  katika  hewa  huibadili  sodium hydroxide  kuwa  kimiminika hivyo ni rahisi kudhuru ngozi yako.

*Sodium hydroxide hushambulia aina zote za metali, hivyo tumia vyombo vya mfinyanzi hii itasaidia na kama

vyombo vya  mfinyanzi  havipatikani tumia aina nyingine ya vyombo vya plastiki.

Ni lazima  sodium hydroxide {NaOH} ihifadhiwe vizuri kwenye vyombo visivyopitisha hewa.

  1. SABUNI  ISIYO NA GHARAMA

Utengenezaji  wa sabuni hii unahitaji juhudi na kazi kubwa kwa mtengenezaji.

Jinsi ya kutengeneza –

Hatua ya 1

*Kusanya maganda ya ndizi, magogo ya mipapai, maganda ya mbegu za kakao, kausha vitu hivi kwenye jiko la jua hadi vikauke, kama huna jiko la jua vikaushe juani.

Hatua ya 2

*Vichome hadi kupata jivu, pia unaweza kutumia  jivu la kuni au karatasi ambazo hazijaandikwa na  sii jivu la plastiki au vitu visivyo vya asili.

*Kusanya majivu na uyapima kwenye ndoo ya lita 10.

*Tumia ndoo yenye ujazo wa lita 20, ongeza lita 15 za maji ya moto na  Koroga vizuri,  baada ya dakika 10, chuja kwa kutumia kitambaa, Kumbuka wakati wote kutumia ndoo ya plastiki au chombo cha mfinyanzi.

*Ongeza maji ya moto lita 5 kwenye majivu yaliyobaki endelea kukoroga kwa dakika 10 halafu chuja tena.

*Weka pamoja vile vyote ulivyochuja kwenye chombo cha mfinyanzi kama utatumia chombo cha metali kitaharibika.

Hatua ya 3

*Chemsha mchanganyiko wako hadi ubakie kikombe 1tu au ml 200 ongeza kikombe kimoja cha mawese halafu chemsha tena kwa muda mfupi, kuwa makini wakati wa kufanya kitendo cha kuongeza mafuta kwani  mchanganyiko huu hutoa povu jingi.

Hatua ya 4

*Mimina mchanganyiko wako kwenye kifyatulio na acha ikauke, iweke majuma 8 hadi 12 na hapo itakuwa tayari kwa kutumia.

  1. 2. SABUNI YA UREMBO

Sabuni hizi zinatengenezwa na mafuta safi na ni nzuri sana kwa ngozi ya mwili.

Unapotumia sabuni hizi ngozi yako hungara kwa sababu ya tabia yake ya kuufanya mwili kama umepakwa mafuta kila wakati.

Mahitaji –

*Mafuata ya mbogamboga/ mawese vipimo 8

*Maji vipimo 5.

*Sodium hydroxide  {NaOH}kipimo 1

JINSI YA KUCHANGANYA

Hatua ya 1

Pima maji vipimo 5, ongeza sodium hydroxide {NaOH} kipimmo 1, koroga mchanganyiko huo na uache hadi joto lake lipungue.

Hatua ya 2

*Ongeza mafuta vipimo 8 kwenye mchanganyiko wako huku ukikoroga bila kusita kwa muda usiopungua dakika 60, ili kuutambua kama mchanganyiko wako umekuwa tayari utaona umekuwa laini.

Hatua ya 3

*Mimina kwenye trea au vifyatulio, kabla sabuni haijawa ngumu unaweza kukata kwa maumbo unayotaka au kutia urembo, jina kwenye sabuni huu ndio wakati muafaka.

*hifadhi sabuni mahali penye mwanga na penye kivuli, ni lazima sabuni ikaae majuma 8 hadi 12 au ianikwe kwenye jiko la jua kwa majuma 3 hadi 4 kabla ya kutumika.

Kuharakisha kuitumia ni hatari kwa sababu sodium hydroxide itakuwa haijamaliza utaratibu wa utengenezaji hivyo kuharibu ngozi ya mtumiaji.

3.SABUNI YA MANUKATO

Mahitaji –

*Unga wa sabuni iliyotengenezwa  na kuwa tayari zaidi ya majuma 8

*Maji

Jinsi ya kutengeneza-

Hatua ya 1

*Saga sabuni iliyotengenezwa muda mrefu kupata unga.

Pima vipimo 8  vya unga wa sabuni, ongeza maji vipimo 2 na yeyusha kwenye joto la kadiri huku ukikoroga hadi utakapo changanyika vizuri.

Hatua ya 2

*Ongeza matone mawili ama matatu ya marashi halafu mimina kwenye vifyatulio.

*Usiwe na haraka unapotengeneza sabuni za manukato kama hutotumia njia niliyokuonyesha hapo juu sodium hydroxide itaharibu manukato uliyoweka.

.

  1. SABUNI YA ASALI AU CREAM

*Mafuta vipimo 8.

*Maji vipimo 5.

*Sodium hydroxide kipimo 1.

*Asali kipimo 1.

Sabuni hii inatengenezwa kama sabuni  namba 2 lakini baada ya kuchanganya vitu vyote unaongeza kipimo 1 cha asali.

  1. SABUNI  NGUMU

Sabuni hii inatumika kuondoa uchafu mgumu

Pima maji vipimo 5 ongeza sodium hydroxide kipimo 1acha mchanganyiko uchanganyike vizuri hadi uanze kupoa. Ongeza mafuta vipimo 6 kwenye mchanganyiko wako huku ukikoroga bila kukoma hadi dakika 60.

Kabla sabuni haijawa ngumu sana, ongeza vipimo 2 vya kaolin iliyochekechwa vizuri kama kaolini haipatikani unaweza kutumia majivu ya kuni yaliyochekechwa vizuri mimina sabuni kwenye kifyatulio na baada ya kuganda ikate vipande kasha iweke sehemu safi ikauke taratibu hadi ndani ya wiki 12 sabuni itakuwa tayari kutumika.

Sabuni hii ni ile inayotumiwa na watu kwa ajili ya kufulia  hii inafaa sana hasa katika maeneo yaliyo na maji chumvi.

Utengenezaji wake hautofautiani sana na sabuni nyingine lakini sabuni hii ina mawese au mafuta kidogo kuliko zile za kuogea au za kipande.

Maji                                      vipimo 4

Sodium hydroxide {NaOH} kipimo1

Mafuta                                  vipimo 5

Baada ya kuchanganya na kuikoroga kwa muda wa dakika 60 acha ikauke kama sabuni nyingine muda usiopungua majuma 8 hadi 12, isage na kuichekecha na chekecheo ili kupata unga laini wenye ukubwa ulio sawasawa hapo sabuni yetu iko tayari kuifungasha na kuiingiza sokoni ama kuitumia wewe mwenyewe.

  1. 7. SABUNI YA KUGANDISHA

Utengenezaji wa sabuni hii una njia nyingi

Njia ya kwanza

Hatua  ya kwanza –

Chemsha vipimo 7 vya mafuta ya mawese au mafuta ya shea hadi ifikie hatua ya kimiminika chuja na yaweke kwenye chungu cha mfinyanzi au chombo cha plastiki.

Hatua ya pili-

Pima vipimo 5 vya maji baridi kwenye chombo cha plastiki ongeza kipimo 1cha sodium hydroxide kwa uangalifu mkubwa kwenye maji acha hadi mchanganyiko huo uyeyuke.

Subiri mchanganyiko wa sodium hydroxide na mafuta ukaribie kupoa.

Hatua ya tatu-

Taratibu ongeza mchanganyiko wa sodium hydroxide kwenye mawese,huku ukikoroga haraka haraka bila kusitisha ukitumia ubao .hii ni njia nzuri zaidi.

Njia ya pili

{a}Chemsha mafuta kwenye joto la kadiri ya 55C

{b}Changanya maji na sodium hydroxide na uache mchanganyiko huu upoe hadi kufikia joto hilohilo.

.{c}baada ya kuandaa mchanyiko wako changanya vimiminika hivyo viwili huku ukikoroga kwanguvu sana kadiri uwezavyo, taratibu sabuni itageuka kuwa laini. Kabla sabuni haijawa ngumu mwaga sabuni ndani ya kasha la mbao lilotangulizwa karatasi nyembamba la plastiki subiri saa 3 na sawazisha sabuni kwa rula au kitu kingine kilicho nyooka huku ukigandamiza juu, ipanguse iwe laini kwa kutumia kitamba kilicho lowanishwa.

{g}katakata sabuni vipande kwa kipimo cha kuuza iweke ikauke katika sehemu yenye kivuli kwa muda wa majuma 8 hadi 12 mfano- ndani ya chumba kwenye sakafu iliyotandikwa kasha la karatasi nene.

8.SABUNI YA DAWA

Sabuni hii inahitaji vitu vifuuatavyo

Unga wa sabuni iliyotengenezwa zaidi ya wiki 8 vipimo 4

Mafuta ya dawa yaliyotengenezwa na unga wa dawa uliotokana na miti ya dawa kama moringa,mwarubaini n.k               kipimo 1 kama mafuta haya hayapatikani unaweza ukatumia unga wenyewe.

Maji         kipimo 1

Jinsi ya kutengeneza-

Changanya vitu vyote kwa pamoja huku ukikoroga mchanganyiko huo kwenye joto la kadiri hadi mchanganyiko uchanganyike vizuri kisha mimina mchanganyiko huo kwenye kifyatulio subiri hadi ipoe na kugande.

Baada ya sabuni kuganda kata kwa umbo unalolitaka kwa kutmia kifaa ulichokiandaa kama kisu,kibati n.k ili kupata vipande vilivyo lingana.

  1. SABUNI YA RANGI KWA KUTUMIA VITU ASILIA

Sabuni hizi  ni zile ambazo zinatengenezwa na rangi asilia ambazo hazina mazara yoyote kwenye ngozi ya  binadamu

Unaweza kujiuliza ni kwa jinsi gain nitapata rangi ya sabuni huku sina fedha ya kununua hii sii tatizo tumia rangi za viungo kama manjano, zingifuri,karafuu, unga wa miti ya dawa kama mwarubaini,mronge na hata mafuta ya mawese.

Kitendo cha kuweka rangi kwenye sabuni unaamua uweke wakati gaini wakati unaanza au wakati wa kumalizia hii haina tatizo ila nategemea.

mafuta ya mawese huwa na rangi ya njano ,nyekundu kutokana na carotene iliyomo.

Kwa sababu hii ukitumia mawese bila kuharibu carotene iliyopo unapata sabuni ya njano na hii ni rangi halisi na ya asili isiyo na madhara yoyote.

Mawese pamoja na mbegu za bixa hupata sabuni nyekundu.

  1. CREAM YA KUNYOLEWA

MAHITAJI

Majani mabichi yanayo nukia mfano mkaratusi, limau, michaichai, lavenda      kipimo  1

Maji                               kipimo  1

Unga wa sabuni iliyotengenezwa zaidiya wiki 8 vipimo 5

Asali                             kipimo   3

Changanya vitu hivyo kwa pamoja taratibu chemsha mchanganyiko huu hadi uwe kitu kmoja, hii ni nzuri ikifanyika kwenye jiko la jua itasaidia kupunguza kiwango cha mvuke utakao toweka wakati wa kuchemsha.

Kama huna jiko la jua basi lazima uongeze maji ili kurudisha katika ujazo wa awali, baada ya kuepua koroga hivyo hivyo wakati inaendelea kupoa, ikisha poa kabisa hifadhi katika chombo kisichopitisha hewa ili kuzuia isikauke.

chombo kizuri ni cha kioo, plastiki au kaure.

  1. SABUNI ILIYOTRENGENEZWA NA MAFUTA MENGINE.

Kama utatumia mafuta ya aina  nyingine mfano ya shahamu au mafuta ya karanga hapa utengenezaji utakuwa mgumu zaidi.

Jinsi ya kutengeneza – yeyusha sodium hydroxide  kwenye ml 200 za maji ongeza gr 200 za shahamu huku ukikoroga  ongeza gr 600 za maji ya moto baada ya mchanganyiko kuchanganyika vizuri hifadhi mchanganyiko kwenye joto la 70 hadi80C angalau kwa saa 6 kwenye jiko la jua koroga kila baada ya dakika 15 kisha ongeza mchanganyiko wa chumvi ya kawaida gramu120 na maji ml200.

Acha mchanganyiko upoe hapo sabuni itatuama juu ya maji kasha mimina sabuni kwenye kifyatulio na iache ikae miezi miwili hadi mitatu ili ikauke vizuri.

Sabuni ulizotengeneza nyumbani ni nzuri kuliko zilizotengenezwa viwandani.

Maana ya maneno

Kaolingi ni udongo mweupe wa mfinyanzi unaopatikana mtoni.  katika Africa hutumika kupamba kuta za nyumba .

Sodium hydroxide NaOH ni kastiki.

Shahamu  ni mafuta ya wanyama kama mafuta ya ngombe,kondoo, nk.

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