Mambo yanayochochea mtoto kupata tatizo la usikivu

Na VERONICA ROMWALD – DAR ES SALAAM

FAMILIA ya Buhela na Hilda mwaka 2013 ilijaliwa kupata mtoto wa kiume waliyemuita Apulihe. Apulihe ni jina la asili la watu wa Mkoa wa Njombe likimaanisha ‘Mungu amesikia’ au kwa kiingereza ‘Godlisten’.

Kuzaliwa kwa mtoto huyo kuliongeza furaha na upendo ndani ya familia hiyo kama ambavyo huwa ni matarajio ya wanandoa walio wengi.

Hilda ambaye pia ni Katibu wa Chama cha wazazi walio na watoto wenye tatizo la usikivu, anasema aliamua kumuita jina hilo mtoto wake huyo baada ya Mwenyezi Mungu kusikia kilio chake.

“Huyu ni mtoto wangu wa tatu, kila nikibeba ujauzito nilikuwa napata misukosuko mingi, mimba zilikuwa zinanisumbua hali iliyosababusha nilazwe ‘bedrest’. Lakini hali ilikuwa tofauti kwa Apulihe, sikuumwa kabisa hivyo nikaona Mungu amesikia kilio changu, ndio maana alipozaliwa nikachagua kumuita jina hilo,” anasema.

Anasema maendeleo ya ukuaji wa mtoto wake huyo yalikuwa mazuri lakini kadiri muda ulivyokuwa ukizidi kwenda mbele alibaini kasoro kadhaa zilizompa wasiwasi mwingi.

“Alikuwa na afya nzuri na hata nilipompeleka kliniki madaktari walikuwa wakinipongeza kila wanapompima na kuona kuwa anaendelea vizuri, lakini mwanangu alikuwa tofauti na watoto wengine, alikuwa hawezi kutoa sauti,” anasema.

Anasema Apulihe alipofikisha umri wa miaka miwili alikuwa bado hajaanza kutamka neno baba au mama kama ambavyo watoto wengi wa umri wake hutamka.

“Hali hii ilizidi kuniongezea wasiwasi niliokuwa nao, kusema ukweli kama mama nilitamani mwanangu aweze kutamka maneno hayo kama ilivyokuwa kwa watoto wengine, lakini hakuweza,” anasema.

Safari ya matibabu

Anasema aliwashirikisha watu wa karibu na familia yake juu ya suala hilo ambapo walimshauri kwenda katika nchi moja iliyopo kwenye Ukanda wa Afrika Mashariki kwani ndipo ambako angeweza kupata matibabu.

“Waliniambia kuwa mwanangu atakuwa anasumbuliwa na tatizo la usikivu, nikasafiri hadi kwenye hiyo nchi, wakamfanyia kipimo kiitwacho ABR na kweli walikuta anasumbuliwa na tatizo hilo la usikivu, nilitumia zaidi ya Sh milioni tisa.

“Lakini jambo lililonikatisha tamaa ni pale daktari wa hospitali ile aliponieleza kuwa hakuna matibabu ambayo mwanangu anaweza kupatiwa ili kumsaidia dhidi ya tatizo hilo,” anasema.

Hilda anasema baada ya kuyapokea majibu hayo alirejea nchini kwa huzuni kubwa.

“Lakini sikukata tamaa, nikawa naendelea kusoma kwenye mitandao mbalimbali kuhusu tatizo hilo, jinsi linavyotokea na iwapo kama linatibika. Nikiwa katika mchakato huo kuna mtu alinishauri nimlete hapa Hospitali ya Taifa Muhimbili (MNH) kwani kuna madaktari bingwa.

“Nilifunga safari nikaja hadi Muhimbili, nikaonana na madaktari na kuwaeleza jinsi ilivyo na wao wakanieleza kuwa tatizo hilo linatibika, huo ulikuwa mwanzo wa kurejea upya kwa furaha yangu,” anasema.

Rufaa ya India

Hilda anasema ilipofika Desemba 7 mwaka 2012, mtoto wake alipata bahati ya kuwa miongoni mwa watoto waliopewa rufaa na serikali kwenda nchini India kufanyiwa matibabu ya kupandikizwa vifaa vya usikivu ‘cochlea implant’.

“Walimfanyia upasuaji Desemba 26 mwaka 2012, baada ya kupandikizwa kifaa hicho nilianza kumuongelesha nikijua kuwa tayari atakuwa ananisikia kumbe si hivyo. Kwa kuwa hii ni mashine ambayo ipo ‘programed’ hadi ifikie hatua ya kuwashwa ili aweze kusikia kama watu wengine huwa ni hatua inayochukua muda mrefu kidogo, madaktari walinieleza.

“Nilivumilia hadi ilipofika Januari 5, 2013 ambapo waliiwasha rasmi, kwa kweli hata baada ya kuwashwa ilichukua tena muda kidogo hadi alipoweza kuongea, ilikuwa rahisi kwake kujifunza kwani ulikuwa umri mwafaka wa kujifunza lugha kwa mtoto wa umri wake,” anasema.

Kisa kingine

Vivian Vicent ni mtoto mwenye umri wa miaka mitatu na nusu sasa, naye amezaliwa na tatizo la usikivu.

Lucy Kizaa ambaye ni mama wa mtoto huyo anasema wao ni wakazi wa Chunya, mkoani Mbeya na kwamba tatizo hilo liligundulika akiwa na umri wa miezi mitatu.

“Alikuwa anashindwa kulia vizuri kama watoto wengine wa umri wake, alipolia alikuwa kama anajikakamua kutoa sauti, nikaamua kumpeleka katika Zahanati moja iliyopo eneo la Chunya,” anasema Kizaa.

Anasema baada ya madaktari kumfanyia vipimo hawakugundua tatizo lililokuwa likimsumbua hivyo walimshauri kumfikisha katika hospitali kubwa kwa uchunguzi zaidi.

“Nilimpeleka Hospitali ya Rufaa ya Mbeya ambapo walimfanyia vipimo lakini nao hawakugundua tatizo hivyo walimpatia rufaa ya kuja hapa Muhimbili, baada ya kufanyiwa vipimo ndipo akagundulika kuwa na tatizo la usikivu,” anasema.

Anasema Vivian alipewa rufaa ya kwenda India Machi 2014, ambapo alifanyiwa upasuaji wa kuwekewa ‘cochlea implant’ na sasa ameanza kujifunza lugha ili aweze kuwasiliana.

Daktari

Mkuu wa Kitengo cha Masikio, Pua na Koo wa Muhimbili, Dk. Edwin Liyombo, anasema idadi ya watoto wanaozaliwa na tatizo la usikivu nchini inazidi kuongezeka kadiri miaka inavyosogea mbele.

“Kitengo hiki kilianza mwaka 2003 wakati huo katika kliniki yetu tulikuwa tukihudumia watoto watatu kwa wiki lakini hadi kufikia mwaka huu idadi imeongezeka ambapo kwa wiki tunaona watoto 16,” anasema.

Anasema tangu mwaka 2003 hadi sasa tayari watoto 45 wamefanyiwa upasuaji wa kupandikizwa kifaa cha kuwezesha usikivu ambacho kitaalamu kinaitwa ‘cochlea implant’.

Sababu za ukiziwi

Daktari huyo anasema zipo nyingi ikiwamo matumizi holela ya dawa zenye kemikali kali kama Quinine ambayo hutumika kutibu ugonjwa wa malaria na ile ya gentamacin inayotumika kutibu ugonjwa wa UTI.

“Hatari zaidi hujitokeza pale mjamzito anapotumia dawa hizo bila kufuata ushauri wa daktari, akizidisha kipimo cha dozi anayopaswa kunywa hali hiyo huchangia kwa asilimia kubwa mtoto kuzaliwa akiwa na tatizo la usikivu (kiziwi),”anasema Dk. Liyombo.

Anasema ndiyo maana wataalamu wa afya huwa wanawashauri wajawazito kuhudhuria kliniki kila wakati na kufuata ushauri wanaowapatia.

“Quinine na Gentamacin ni mfano tu wa dawa ambazo huchangia kuchochea mtoto kupata tatizo la usikivu lakini zipo nyingi, sasa matumizi holela ya dawa zenye sumu, dozi inapozidishwa sumu hizo huenda kuua seli zilizoko ndani ya sikio katika eneo la ‘Cochlea’,” anasema.

Anasema seli hizo zinapokufa sikio hushindwa kupokea mawimbi ya sauti na kwa kuwa mawimbi ya sauti hayafiki kwenye eneo la ‘cochlea’ ili yasafirishwe kwenda kwenye ubongo kupitia mshipa wa fahamu ulioko kichwani matokeo yake mtu hushindwa kusikia vema.

“Kuna umuhimu wa kuwa mwangalifu pia katika matumizi ya dawa hata zile za kutibu kifua kikuu (TB) na homa ya mgongo ingawa wapo wengine ambao hupata tatizo hasa wale wanaokuwa wamezaliwa na manjano,” anasema.

Ukiziwi husababisha ububu

“Hili ni jambo ambalo wazazi wengi hawajui, kwamba mtoto anaposhindwa kuongea katika umri ambao wataalamu tunatarajia awe ameanza kutamka baadhi ya maneno kama baba, mama, kaka au dada, huwa si dalili nzuri.

“Wengi wanajipa moyo ni hali ya kawaida hivyo ataongea kadiri anavyokuwa lakini wanashtuka amefika miaka mitatu hajui kuzungumza, matokeo yake wanamtafuta shule za viziwi. Ukweli ni kwamba kwa asilimia kubwa tatizo la usikivu husababisha tatizo lingine la ububu,” anasema.

Dk. Liyombo anasema jinsi Mungu alivyouumba ubongo wa mwanadamu kipindi cha umri wa mwaka mmoja hadi miaka sita ndicho anachopaswa kuwa tayari ameweza kujifunza kuzungumza.

“Ndiyo maana mtoto huweza kujifunza kwa urahisi lugha yoyote katika kipindi hicho, zaidi ya hapo atajifunza lakini huwa kazi. Ubongo ulivyoumbwa zile seli za usikivu zisipofanya kazi yake sawasawa katika kipindi hicho, huwa pia zinakufa kabisa.

“Iwapo imetokea seli hizo zikafa mtoto kushindwa pia kuzungumza lugha yoyote kwani sikio lake hushindwa kupokea mawimbi ya sauti kuyasafirisha kwenye ubongo ili aweze kuwasiliana,” anasema.

Gharama za upasuaji

Anasema ili kufanikisha upasuaji wa mtoto mmoja iliilazimu serikali kutoa zaidi ya Sh milioni 100 za matibabu nchini India.

“Unaweza kuona kwa hawa watoto 45 ilitumia fedha nyingi kiasi gani hadi kufanikisha upasuaji huwa wanakwenda kama awamu nne, kwanza hufanyiwa uchunguzi wa awali ‘mapping’ ambao hugharimu takribani Sh milioni 20,” anasema.

Muhimbili kupandikiza kifaa hicho

Anasema kutokana na ukubwa huo wa gharama walijikuta wakishindwa kuwahudumia wagonjwa wengi waliohitaji kuwekewa kifaa hicho.

“Ndiyo maana miaka mitatu iliyopita tuliandika andiko kwa serikali kuomba Muhimbili tuanze kufanya upasuaji huu nchini, leo hii tumefanikisha na tutafanya kwa kushirikiana na Shirika lisilo la Kiserikali la Medel,” anasema.

Jinsi kinavyofanya kazi

Daktari huyo anasema mtoto husika hufanyiwa upasuaji sehemu ndogo ya kichwani ambapo kifaa hicho huwekwa chini ya ngozi na kuunganishwa katika mfumo wa ubongo.

“Kisha hupewa kifaa kingine kiitwacho ‘prosser’ ambacho hukivaa katika sikio la nje, hii ‘prosser’ hufanya kazi ya kupokea mawimbi ya sauti na kuyapeleka kwenye kifaa tulichokiweka chini ya ngozi ambapo mawimbi hayo husafirishwa kwenda kwenye ubongo na hivyo mtoto huweza kusikia kama mtu mwingine asiye na tatizo,” anasema.

Changamoto

Katibu wa Chama cha Wazazi wenye Watoto walio na tatizo la usikivu, anasema changamoto kubwa wanayokabiliana nayo ni watoto wao kuporwa mashine hiyo na vibaka wakidhani ni vile vinavyotumika kwenye simu.

“Bahati mbaya ni kwamba wakiiba haiwezekani kuuza popote kwa sababu hii mashine kila mtoto ametengenezewa ya kwake, huwezi kuchukua cha mmoja ukampa mwingine, hataweza kusikia.

“Kwa hiyo wakiiba wanasababisha hasara kubwa, mtoto anakuwa hawezi tena kusikia na hivi vinanunuliwa kwa gharama kubwa, na lazima uagize kwa kampuni iliyotengeneza, hivyo tunaomba jamii ielewe na itusaidie kwa suala hili,” anasema.

Ni upasuaji wa kihistoria

Mkurugenzi wa Muhimbili, Profesa Lawrence Museru, anasema kuanza kufanyika kwa upasuaji huo nchini inaifanya Tanzania kuwa nchi ya kwanza kutoa huduma hiyo ya kipekee katika nchi zilizopo kwenye Ukanda wa Jangwa la Sahara.

 

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