Wasomi, wabunge waukataa mkataba wa EPA

WABUNGE na wasomi wameuponda Mkataba wa Ushirikiano wa Kiuchumi kati ya Jumuiya ya Ulaya (EU) na Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki (EPA) na kuishauri Serikali ya Tanzania isiingie kwa haraka kwenye mkataba huo, kwani hauna maslahi na unadhoofisha uchumi wa nchi.

Mkataba huo ambao Tanzania haijausaini, unatarajiwa kuwasilishwa bungeni Alhamisi ya wiki hii kwa ajili ya kujadiliwa na kuridhiwa. Tayari Kenya na Rwanda zimekiuka makubaliano ya EAC kwa kuusaini mkataba huo na kuufikisha bungeni kwa ajili ya kuuridhia.

Hata hivyo, ikiwa nchi moja kati ya sita za EAC haitaridhia, mkataba huo hautatekelezeka. Sambamba na hilo, wameelezea Kenya kuwa ndiyo mchawi kwa Tanzania kuingia kwenye mageuzi ya viwanda tangu mwaka 1964, 1976 na sasa mwaka 2016.

Profesa Kabudi anena Mhadhiri wa Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Profesa Palamagamba Kabudi akitoa tathmini yake kwenye semina ya wabunge ya Maendeleo ya majadiliano ya EPA baada ya kuuchambua mkataba huo, alisema mkataba huo una ahadi nyingi bila kuwa na nyenzo za kutekelezeka, ni mbaya kwani utairudisha nyuma nchi.

Akitetea hoja yake hiyo, alisema EU haitapata hasara yoyote, bali EAC ndiyo itaathirika na kutaja athari hizo ni pamoja na nchi za EAC hazitaruhusiwa tena kuongeza ushuru wa bidhaa zinazoingia nchini wakati Tanzania ni nchi inayoendelea. Pia EPA itasababisha wananchi wa nchi za Afrika Mashariki kukosa ajira kutokana na ukanda huo kugeuka ukanda huru wa bidhaa za Ulaya.

“Tukisaini EPA na tukitaka kuingia kwenye ushirikiano wa kiuchumi na nchi nyingine zilizo nje ya EPA kama China kuna kipengele kinatufunga lazima na hizo nchi nyingine tuwape masharti kama ya EPA na kama tutaongeza masharti mengine, basi lazima nayo yaongezwe kwenye mkataba wa EPA,” alisema Profesa Kabudi.

Msomi huyo alisema mkataba huo pia unalazimisha nchi za EAC kupeleka kwao bidhaa zenye kuzingatia afya na usalama kwa kukidhi viwango vya nchi zao, kipengele ambacho kinaiumiza Tanzania, kwani kuna uwezekano bidhaa hizo zikakosa soko kwa kutokidhi vigezo vyao pamoja na kutakiwa kuthibitisha usalama huo kisayansi ambapo kwa bidhaa za nchini ni vigumu kupata uthibitisho huo kama asali inayozalishwa Tabora, eneo linalolimwa tumbaku.

“Huu mkataba unasema mnapotaka kujitoa lazima mtoke wote na mnatoka baada ya mwaka mmoja tangu utoe taarifa hivyo utakuwa umejifunga,” alieleza.

Anyooshea kidole Kenya Kuhusu Kenya kuonekana mwiba kwa Tanzania kwenye mageuzi ya viwanda, Profesa Kabudi alisema; “tangu mwaka 1964, 1976 na mwaka huu… tunapitia vipindi vigumu kila tukitaka kuingia mageuzi ya viwanda na aliyetufikisha huku ni Kenya, yenyewe inaanzisha viwanda tena kwa kuwatumia Marekani na Ulaya.

“Sasa tumeamua kujenga viwanda, mkuki ni uleule Kenya kupitia EPA, tumekubaliana tupeane miezi mitatu kuutafakari mkataba, lakini Kenya Bunge lake umeuridhia.”

Mhadhiri mwingine kutoka UDSM, Dk John Jingu alipigilia msumari kwa kusema Tanzania ikiingia itapoteza mapato kwa sababu inategemea ushuru wa forodha na sasa kiujumla asilimia 10 ya ushuru huo unatoka kwenye bidhaa zinazoingia zikitokea Ulaya.

Tanzania itapoteza mapato

Alisema EPA itaiathiri Tanzania kibiashara kwa sababu nchi inazofanya nazo zaidi biashara si za Umoja wa Ulaya. Alitaja nchi ambazo Tanzania inaagiza bidhaa zake zaidi ni za Saudi Arabia, China, India, Falme za Kiarabu, Afrika Kusini, Uswisi, Marekani, Korea Kusini, Kenya na Andorra huku ikisafirisha zaidi kwenye nchi za China, India, Afrika Kusini, Saudi Arabia na Kenya.

Alitaja ubaya mwingine wa mkataba huo kuwa utaathiri uwezo wa Tanzania kwenye kuvutia mitaji na kutaja nchi ambazo kwa sasa zinawekeza moja kwa moja kuwa ni Uingereza, India, Kenya, Uholanzi, China, Marekani, Afrika Kusini, Canada, Oman na Ujerumani. Alisititiza kuwa mkataba huo, lengo lake kuu ni biashara huria wakati alipousoma vizuri amegundua hakuna biashara huria na kufafanua, “Ulaya haiwezi kuacha kutoa ruzuku kwa wakulima na sisi wakulima wetu hatuwapi ruzuku hapo sasa itaua bidhaa za kilimo za wakulima wetu.”

Alitaja baadhi ya hasara ilizopata nchi za Caribbean tangu mwaka 2009 ziingie kwenye EPA kama zilivyobaini kwenye tathmini ilizofanya Julai mwaka huu kuwa hasara ya Euro milioni 353 hadi 498, biashara imepungua kwa kiwango kikubwa kwa sababu ya ubora mkubwa na urahisi wa bei wa bidhaa za Ulaya.

Pia nchi hizo zimeendelea kupeleka ulaya madini, mafuta na malighafi kama ilivyokuwa zamani.

Mkataba hauna mashiko Mtaalamu mwingine, Dk Ng’wanza Kamata kutoka Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam, alisema mkataba huo kwa namna ulivyo hauna mashiko kwa nchi na kama ukipitishwa, ndoto ya uchumi wa kitaifa wa kisasa na unaojitegemea, itazimika.

“Mwongozo wa kutusaidia kufanya uamuzi ni kuangalia hali ya kisiasa na uchumi wa dunia. Kuna ‘New Scramble of Africa’ (mgawanyo wa mataifa ya Afrika).

Haya mazingira ya kutaka nchi ziingie mikataba hii hauko kwa EU pekee, kuna kinachowavutia kuja katika nchi zetu,” alisema Dk Kamata.

Aliitaka nchi iangalie kwa makini kuhusu mkataba huo kwamba kuna fursa kwa taifa na si kuburuzwa, akisisitiza kuwa historia ya Tanzania ni kusimamia ukweli na kutoa uamuzi mgumu kwa mambo ambayo mataifa mengine yanaridhia, ikiwemo mwaka 1965 ilipoongoza OAU kuvunja uhusiano na Uingereza.

Katibu Mkuu afafanua

Awali, Katibu Mkuu wa Wizara ya Viwanda, Biashara na Uwekezaji, Adolf Mkenda alisema Tanzania ikisaini mkataba huo haitaweza kuongeza kodi, badala yake itabaki na tozo inazotoza sasa na kadiri miaka vitakavyokwenda itakuwa ikipunguza kodi hizo hadi kubaki sifuri kulingana na vipengele na miaka iliyoainishwa katika mkataba huo.

Dk Mkenda alitaja baadhi ya bidhaa na kodi hizo kuwa ni “bidhaa za ulaji sasa tunatoza asilimia 25, tukisaini itabaki hivyo kwa miaka 12 halafu kodi itapunguzwa hadi kufikia asilimia sifuri.”

Alisema tathimini ya wizara waliyoifanya kuhusu manufaa na hasara za mkataba huo, walibaini kuwa utadhoofisha nchi kisera hasa mataifa na ukanda mwingine ulioleta maombi ya kufanya mikataba ya kibiashara na Tanzania.

Kuhusu manufaa ya mkataba huo, Mkenda alisema ungeweza kuchochea ushirikiano wa kiuchumi kama kungekuwa na rasimu nzuri ya mkataba huo. Wabunge wazungumza Baada ya wataalamu hao wasomi kuwasilisha uchambuzi wa mkataba huo katika semina hiyo, wabunge walipata nafasi ya kuuliza maswali ambapo baadhi walitaka kupata upande wa pili wa wataalamu walioonesha uzuri wa mkataba huku wengine wakitaka uchambuzi zaidi wa nini nchi ifanye kuboresha mkataba na kama hautasainiwa nini kifanyike.

Mbunge wa Ilala, Mussa Azzan Zungu (CCM) alitaka utaratibu wa kuwaleta wataalamu kuelimisha wabunge kuhusu mikataba kabla ya kusaini uendelee kwa maslahi ya nchi.

Mbunge wa Iringa Mjini, Peter Msigwa (Chadema) alitaka wataalamu waletwe walio na uchambuzi wa upande wa uzuri wa mkataba huo kwa kuwa anaamini kuna mazuri kwenye mkataba huo.

Hoja ya Msigwa iliungwa mkono na Mbunge wa Ubungo, Said Kubenea (Chadema) ambaye alikubaliana na wataalamu kwamba, kwa namna mkataba ulivyo, faida kwa nchi ni ndogo, na kutaka pia wataalamu wachambue uzuri wa mkataba.

Mbunge wa Mwibara, Kangi Lugola (CCM) alishauri mkataba huo uainishe mazao muhimu ya biashara kwa kuwa namna ulivyo umeweka mambo kiujumla na kuwashukuru wataalamu na Rais John Magufuli kwa kuridhia uje bungeni kujadiliwa kabla ya kuridhiwa.

meandikwa na Maulid Ahmed na Gloria Tesha, Dodoma

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